Data were collected on the number of words written, defined as all written words, regardless of spelling, that represented a spoken word (); and the number of functional essay elements, defined in accordance with the procedures outlined by Graham and Harris in which the total number of functional essay elements is calculated by counting the number of premises, reasons, conclusions, and elaborations. Data were collected on the duration of sessions, because students were free to work on the task for as long as they chose. Interobserver agreement was assessed across all experimental conditions and participants. An agreement check was conducted with 33% of the essays written. Agreement was calculated for the number of words written by dividing the smaller obtained number of words written by the larger and multiplying by 100%, and was 98%. Point-by-point agreement was calculated for the number of essay elements by having two raters code each statement as an essay element (e.g., premise, reason, elaboration, conclusion) or not an element. The number of agreements were then divided by the number of agreements and disagreements and multiplied by 100%. Agreement was 87%.
Baseline Essay Probes. During baseline, students'preinstruction response rates on writing essays were established. Theprimary variable of interest was the number of functional essay elementsincluded in each composition; time spent planning, essay length, qualityratings, and attributions were also assessed.
Essay Elements, Descriptive Essay About My Best Friend
The results for Alan, Peter, and Justin are shown in . During baseline, students wrote essays ranging from 11 to 121 words and included few functional essay elements in their writing. The average number of words written in baseline were 100 for Alan, 52 for Peter, and 17 for Justin. When the SRSD intervention for words written was introduced, each student showed gains in the number of words written (384, 102, and 46 words for Alan, Peter, and Justin, respectively). During baseline, session duration averaged 52 min for Alan, 22 min for Peter, and 12 min for Justin. Session duration increased markedly to 82 min for Alan, increased gradually over the course of sessions to an average of 15 min for Justin, and increased minimally to 23 min for Peter. Thus, the intervention for words written resulted in all participants writing more words, and 2 of 3 participants wrote for longer periods of time. Similar changes in performance relative to baseline were observed when the students were asked to write expository essays, indicating generalization of effects from persuasive to expository essays.