In a (winning) (pdf) to a previous FQXI essay competition, I show that a relatively simple Machian reformulation of classical dynamics can illustrate how time, or precisely duration, is redundant as a fundamental concept. Duration and the behaviour of clocks emerge from a timeless law that governs change.
Bolognesi T., In: FQXi Essay Contest 2015 – ‘Trick or Truth? The Mysterious Connection Between Physics and Mathematics’ (January – August, 2015). Proceedings, electronic form, Foundational Question Institute, March 2015. 3th Prize Winner and special mention for ‘Most Creative Presentation’. — To appear also in Springer volume, The Frontiers Collection, 2016.
FQXi essay contest Jean-Francois Geneste
I do not think that any "fundamental" mathematical description of such anomalies is possible. As described in my 2012 FQXI essay, concise sets of equations are almost devoid of information. Consequently, they can never describe phenomenon that are not similarly devoid of information.