Habermas begins outlining his vision of a contemporary world citizenry by tracing the history ofhis own country, Germany, an irony he heightens by addressing the book to the prevailing globalsentiment of "enlightened helplessness." But it is in chapter 4, the focus of this review, thatHabermas considers the current crisis facing a universal communicative order. Left in the wake ofthe twentieth century's great catastrophes, the most significant threat to democratic control,Habermas tells us, is an old one; namely, the social inequalities of capitalism, or "issues ofredistribution" (p. 72). Whereas at one time the social costs of modernization could be bargainedover between state and citizens, the new constellation of transnational authorities must learn toredistribute burdens, rather than simply sharing risks. Habermas locates the normative basis forthis renewed conception of democratic participation in the following way: "In the political publicsphere, conflicts on a national, European, or global scale develop their power to disturb us whenthey are seen against the background of a normative understanding of social inequities andpolitical oppression, not as natural phenomena but as social products - hence as changeable" (p.59). Indeed, "the media see to it that prosperity gaps . . . are perceived worldwide" (p. 73).
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Politicians take media seriously, and utilize it well, when election times arrive. Your political essay paper could consist of the following topics which relate to media: